Medical Journal Articles

Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing

  • Baker, J; “Return to Full Functioning after Graded Exercise Assessment and Progressive Exercise Treatment of Post-concussion Syndrome;” Rehab Research and Practice, January 2012.
  • Ellis, M; “Physiological, Vestibulo-ocular and Cervicogenic Post-concussion Disorders;” Brain Injury, 2015; 29 (2); 238-248.
  • Lal, A; “”The Effect of Physical Exercise After a Concussion: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis;” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, June 2017
  • Leddy, J; “Role of Controlled Exercise in Concussion Management;” PMR 8, 2016; 91-100
  • Leddy, J; “Use of Graded Exercise Testing in Concussion and Return-to-Activity Management”; Current Sports Medicine Reports; Nov/Dec 2013, 12 (6); 370-376.
  • Leddy, J; “Rehabilitation of Concussion and Post-concussion Syndrome;” Sports Health 2012, 4 (2); 147-154

Challenging the Use of Rest as Treatment for Concussion and PCS

  • Brown NJ, “Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms,” Pediatrics 2014,133 (2), 1-7
  • Buckley TA, “Acute Cognitive and Physical Rest May Not Improve Concussion Recovery Time,” J Head Trauma Rehab 2016, 31 (4); 233-241
  • Leddy JJ, “The Role of Controlled Exercise in Concussion Management,” PMR 2016, 8, 591-598
  • Majerske CW, “Concussion in Sports: Postconcussive Activity Levels, Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Performance,” JAT 2008, 43 (3); 265-274
  • Thomas DG, “Benefits of Strict Rest After Acute Concussion: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Pediatrics 2015, 135 (2), 213-221

Computer Orthoptics

  • Leong D, “The Effect of Saccadic Training on Early Reading Fluency”; Clinical Pediatrics 2014; 53 (9): 858-864.
  • Serna A, “Treatment of Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency with a Home-Based Computer Orthoptic Exercise Program”; Journal of AAPOS 2011; 15: 140-143.

Heading in Soccer

  • Cantu, R; “White Paper: The Neurological Consequences of Heading in Soccer,” 2015
  • Levitch, C; “Recent and Long-Term Soccer Heading Exposure is Differentially Associated with Neuropsychological Function in Amateur Players,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 2017; 23:1-9
  • Lipton M; “Soccer Heading Is Associated with White Matter Microstructural and Cognitive Abnormalities,” Neuroradiology 2013; 268 (3); 850-857
  • Moore R: “The independent influence of concussive and sub-concussive impacts on soccer player’s neurophysiological and neuropsychological function,” Int J of Psychophysiology 2017; 112: 22-30
  • O’Kane K; “Concussion Among Female Middle-School Soccer Players,” JAMA Pediatr 2014; 168 (3): 258-264

Invalid Performance, Anxiety, and School Avoidance

  • Carless B, “Role of Parental Self-Efficacy in Adolescent School-Refusal,” American Psychol Assoc 2015, 29 (2), 162-170
  • Connery AK, “The ImPACT of Pediatric Neuropsychological Consultation in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Model for Providing Feedback After Invalid Performance,” Clin Neuropsychologist 2016, 30 (4), 579-598
  • Edmed S, “Depression, Anxiety, and Stress as Predictors of Post-Concussion-Like Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample,” Psychiatric Research 2012, 200, 41-45
  • Garden N, “An Examination of the Base Rates of Post-Concussion Symptoms: The Influence of Demographics and Depression,”
  • Kearney CA, “Moving From Assessment to Treatment of School Refusal Behavior in Youth,” Int J of Beh Consultation and Therapy, 1 (1), 46-51
  • Knollmann M, “School Avoidance From the Point of View of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,” Deutsches Arzteblatt Int 2010; 107 (4), 43-9
  • Ladwig RJ, “School Avoidance: Implications for School Nurses,” JSPN 2007, 12 (3), 210-212

King-Devick Testing in Concussion

  • Galetta KM; “The King-Devick test and sports-related concussion: study of a rapid visual screening tool in a collegiate cohort,” J of Neurol Sciences, 2011.
  • Marinedes Z; “Vision testing is additive to the sideline assessment of sports-related concussion,” Neurology: Clinical Practice, February 2015.
  • Tjarks BJ, “Comparison and utility of King-Devick and ImPACT to composite scores in adolescent concussion patients,” J Neurol Sci 2013 Nov 334 (1-2).

Measurement of Oculomotor Dysfunction in TBI via Eye Movement Devices

  • Mullen SJ, “Saccadic eye movements in mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2014, 41 (1), 58-65
  • Lee KSH, “Duration of fixation in patients with acquired brain injury: Retrospective analysis,” Optometry & Visual Performance 2015, 3 (4), 223-226
  • Pearson BC, “Saccadometry: the possible application of latency distribution measurement for monitoring concussion,” British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007; 41 ; 610-612

Neck Pain

  • Conlin, A; “Treatment of whiplash-associated disorders – Part 1: Noninvasive interventions;” Pain Research and Management, 2005; 10 (1); 21-32
  • Kristjansson, E; “Sensorimotor Function and Dizziness in Neck Pain: Implications for Assessment and Management;” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2009; 39 (5); 364-377
  • Morin, M; “Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review;” Journal of Sports Medicine, 2016; 1-20
  • Rosenfeld, M; “Early Intervention in Whiplash-Associated Disorders;” The Spine Journal, 2000; 25 (14); 1782-1787

Neck Strengthening

  • Caswell S; “Neck Strengthening Recommendations for Concussion Risk Reduction in Youth Sport,” IJATT 2014; Nov; 22-27.
  • Collins C; “Neck Strength: A Protective Factor Reducing Risk for Concussion in High School Sports,” J Primary Prevent 2014;35; 309-319.
  • Dezman Z; “Neck Strength Imbalance Correlates with Increased Head Acceleration in Soccer Heading,” Sports Health 2013; 5 (4); 320-326.
  • Eckner J; “Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads,” Am J Sports Med 2014; 42 (3); 566-576.

Pharmacotherapy in Concussion

  • Camiolo-Reddy; Efficacy of Amantadine Treatment on Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance Among Adolescents Following Sports-Related Concussion; J Head Trauma Rehab 2013; 28 (4), 260-265
  • Collins; Science of Concussion; UPMC Restore 2013
  • Meehan; Medical Therapies; Clin Sports Med 2011; 30 (1)
  • Pinto; Predictors of Pharmacological Intervention in Adolescents with Protracted Symptoms after Sports-Related Concussion; PMRJ 2017

Retirement from Sport Considerations

  • Ellis, “Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach,” Neurosurg Focus 2016, 40 (4), 1-13.

Return to Learn

  • Gioia, GA; “Medical-School Partnership in Guiding Return to School Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Youth;” J Child Neuro, 2016; 31 (1), 93-108
  • Grady, M; “Return to School and Learning After Concussion: Tips for Pediatricians;” Pediatric Annals, 2017; 46 (3), 93-98
  • Halstead, ME; “Returning to Learning Following a Concussion;” Pediatrics 2013; 132 (5), 948-956
  • Santiago, S; “Adolescent Concussion and Retun-to-Learn;” Pediatric Annals 2016; 45 (3), 73-75

“Return to Play” Protocols

  • Aubry M, “Summary and agreement statement of the first International Conference on Concussion in Sport,” Vienna 2001, Br J Sports Med 2002;36:10–13
  • Graham R, “Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science, Changing the Culture” IOM National Academy of Sciences, 2013
  • May K, “Pediatric sports specific return to play guidelines following concussion,” The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 2014; 9 (2); 242-255
  • McCrory P, Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012, Br J Sports Med 2013;47:250–258.
  • McCrory P, Consensus statement on concussion in sport—the 5th international conference on concussion in sport held in Berlin, October 2016

SWAY Balance Mobility

  • Amick RZ; “Test-retest reliability of the SWAY Balance Mobile Application,” J of Mobile Technology in Medicine 2014; 4 (2); 40-47.
  • Patterson JA, “Validation of Measures from the Smartphone SWAY Balance application: A Pilot Study,” Int J Sports Physical Therapy 2014; 9 (2); 135-139.
  • Patterson JA, “Comparison of a Mobile Technology Application with the Balance Error Scoring System,” Int J of Athletic Therapy & Training; May 2014; 4-7.
  • Seymour HC, “Validity and reliability of Mobile Postural Stability Testing Devices for Use in Clinical Concussion Assessment,” NATA Conference Poster June 2015.
  • Staab CA, “Reproducibility of Balance Measures Using Motion Sensors in Smartphone Technology to Measure Balance,” Proceedings 8th Annual GRASP Symposium, Wichita State University, 2012.

Therapeutic Exercise in Concussion

  • Grool AM; “Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents,” JAMA 2016; 316 (23); 2502-2514
  • Howell DR; “Physical activity level and symptom duration are not associated after concussion,” AM J Sports Med 2016; 44 (4)
  • Leddy JJ, “A Physiological Approach to Prolonged Recovery From Sport-Related Concussion,” JAT 2017, 52 (3); 299-308
  • Leddy JJ; “Exercise treatment for postconcussion syndrome: A pilot study of changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, physiology, and symptoms,” J Head Trauma Rehab 2013; 28 (4); 241-249
  • Leddy JJ; “Rehabilitation of concussion and post-concussion syndrome,” Sports Health Mar Apr 2012; 4 (2)
  • Leddy JJ; “A preliminary study of subsymptom threshold exercise training for refractory post-concussion syndrome,” Clin J Sport Med 2010; 20 (1)

Traumatic Encephalopathy

  • Montenigro PH, “Clinical sub-types of chronic traumatic encephalopathy: literature review and proposed research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome,” Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy 2014; 6 (68), 1-17
  • Reams N, “A Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome,” JAMA Neurology June 2016, 73 (6), 743-749.

Treating Convergence Insufficiency

  • Fabo S, “Are Orthoptic Exercises an Effective Treatment for Conversion and Fusion Deficiencies?”; Strabismus 2006; 14; 183-189.
  • Momeni-Moghaddam H; “Effectiveness of Home-based Pencil Push-up Therapy vs. Office-based Therapy for the Treatment of Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Young Adults,” Middle East Afr J Ophth 2015 Jan-Mar 22 (1); 97-102.
  • Scheiman M, “A Randomized Clinical Trial of Vision Therapy/Orthoptics versus Pencil Pushups for the Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency in Young Adults”; Optometry and Vision Science 2005; 82 (7); 583-595.
  • Serna A, “Treatment of Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency with a Home-Based Computer Orthoptic Exercise Program”; Journal of AAPOS 2011; 15: 140-143

Vision Problems in concussions

  • Master CL, “Vision diagnoses are common after concussion in adolescents,” Clin Peds 2016, 55 (3), 260-267
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